From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination. From the Hardcover edition.
Jihad and Jew hatred
Matthias Küntzel A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Jihad and Jew hatred Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis
Asymmetric synthesis remains a challenge to practicing scientists as the need for enantiomerically pure or enriched compounds continues to increase. Over the last decade, a large amount of literature has been published in this field. Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis consolidates and evaluates the most useful methodologies into a one-volume resource for the convenience of practicing scientists and students. Authored by internationally renowned scientists in the field, this reliable reference covers more than 450 reactions and includes important stoichiometric as well as catalytic asymmetric reactions. The first chapter reviews the basic principles, common nomenclature, and analytical methods, and the remainder of the book is organized according to reaction type. The text examines such topics as: Carbon-carbon bond formations involving carbonyls, enamines, imines, and enolates Asymmetric C-O bond formations including epoxidation, dihydroxylation, and aminohydroxylation Asymmetric synthesis using the Diels-Alder reaction and other cyclizations Applications to the total synthesis of natural products Use of enzymes in asymmetric synthesis Practicing chemists in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural professions as well as graduate students will find that Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis affords comprehensive and current coverage.
Flight Theory and Aerodynamics
The pilot's guide to aeronautics and the complex forces of flight Flight Theory and Aerodynamics is the essential pilot's guide to the physics of flight, designed specifically for those with limited engineering experience. From the basics of forces and vectors to craft-specific applications, this book explains the mechanics behind the pilot's everyday operational tasks. The discussion focuses on the concepts themselves, using only enough algebra and trigonometry to illustrate key concepts without getting bogged down in complex calculations, and then delves into the specific applications for jets, propeller crafts, and helicopters. This updated third edition includes new chapters on Flight Environment, Aircraft Structures, and UAS-UAV Flight Theory, with updated craft examples, component photos, and diagrams throughout. FAA-aligned questions and regulatory references help reinforce important concepts, and additional worked problems provide clarification on complex topics. Modern flight control systems are becoming more complex and more varied between aircrafts, making it essential for pilots to understand the aerodynamics of flight before they ever step into a cockpit. This book provides clear explanations and flight-specific examples of the physics every pilot must know. Review the basic physics of flight Understand the applications to specific types of aircraft Learn why takeoff and landing entail special considerations Examine the force concepts behind stability and control As a pilot, your job is to balance the effects of design, weight, load factors, and gravity during flight maneuvers, stalls, high- or low-speed flight, takeoff and landing, and more. As aircraft grow more complex and the controls become more involved, an intuitive grasp of the physics of flight is your most valuable tool for operational safety. Flight Theory and Aerodynamics is the essential resource every pilot needs for a clear understanding of the forces they control.
Mrs Plug the Plumber
Whenever a plumber is needed in the town, people call for Mrs Plug. And wherever she goes, Mr Plug and the baby Plugs go too. Then one night she uses her plumbing tools to save a rich man from a robber and the family end up setting sail on their biggest plumbing adventure ever!Based on the classic 'Happy Families' card game, this highly entertaining series is ideal for reading and sharing at home or at school. It is guided by the Education Adviser, Brian Thompson, and written by the award-winning author, Allan Ahlberg.'The best thing to happen to beginner readers since Dr Seuss' Children's Rights Workshop.